The delimitation of competencies and powers between the bodies and officials of the state has been known for a long time, but not all world states follow this. Nigeria has three arms of government, and they have different features and functions. What are the arms of government and why are there three branches?
The federal state of Nigeria has three levels of state power. There are state, federal and local levels of government.
Three arms of government in Nigeria
The three-level structure implies that the life of society is managed on various levels. Such a division into levels makes it possible to divide responsibilities, and it allows the government to manage the country more efficiently. Without separation of powers and an appropriate, effective system, there can be no rule of law.
The obstacle to the emergence of any unlimited control, not bound by law and constitutional principles, is in the distribution of power between state bodies in such a way that none of them owns all state jurisdiction.
Arms of government and their functions
The separation of powers is the result, and the essential characteristic of the degree of state development, the condition and prerequisite for the organization and functioning of the rule of law. Three arms of government in Nigeria are:
- The Executive
- The Judiciary
- The Legislature
The Federal Executive
The Federal Executive level is headed by the president. He is the head of state and the main commander of the army. President takes this position for 4 years after the nationwide election. To win, a candidate must gain a simple majority and receive support from at least 1/4 of voters in 2/3 of the states and the federal capital of Abuja.
President is in charge of the readiness of the country to provide a proper level of security to every Nigerian citizen and of the ability to withstand enemies. President is required to approve laws. The cabinet of the president consists of one member from each state. The current president of Nigeria is Muhammadu Buhari.
The executive level consists of Federal Ministries. The ministries are responsible for various government-owned corporations. The executive level of government is also responsible for such services as education, healthcare, welfare, and finance. The same person cannot simultaneously be a member of the government and the National Assembly. Each applicant for the post of the federal minister must meet the criteria for candidates for elections to the National Assembly.
The president may, at his discretion, assign to the vice-president and federal ministers the tasks of implementing the government policy. The main function of Vice-President, according to the Constitution is to replace the president in case of his retirement, resignation or death.
The Constitution obliges the head of state to hold regular meetings with the Vice-President and members of the government about the development of the main directions of domestic and foreign policy.
The president also, at his discretion, makes appointments to the posts of special adviser, permanent secretary of ministries and heads of departments.
National Assembly represents The Legislature. Senate is the upper chamber, and it consists of 109 senators. The lower Chamber of Legislature is The House of Representatives. It consists of 360 representatives elected for 4 years term of office. The primary function of this government arm is lawmaking. The Legislature possesses supremacy and independence in the sphere of establishing the legal principles of state and public life. It ultimately determines the entire judicial system of society.
The dominant position of the legislative bodies determines the supreme legal force of the laws they adopt.
The most respectable judicial body among the arms of government is The Judiciary. Chief Justice of Nigeria heads the Supreme Court of Nigeria. The primary function of the judiciary is the interpretation of the law and strengthening the rule of law, ensuring compliance with legislation and developing democracy. The judiciary also performs checks on the power of the executive and the legislature.
The Supreme Court acts as the highest appellate court in the country, considers certain categories of cases, reviews judicial acts of the Court of Appeal. Supreme Court headed by the Chief Judge, and there are 21 associated judges. The Supreme Court also deals with issues of tax law, finance, property rights, trade, transport, customs legislation, criminal offences in these areas of activity. It also includes the consideration of cases of high treason.
The Judiciary is the guardian of the Constitution. Of course, even this system has its drawbacks, but the independence and cohesion of all three branches of the government still show good results of teamwork.
In this way executive, legislative, judiciary structure is a symbol of the organizational hierarchy. The three arms of government do everything necessary to maintain law and order in the state. Each branch has its drawbacks, but a lot of people every day work to eliminate them.
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