Renewable energy resources and technologies in Nigeria

Renewable energy resources and technologies in Nigeria

Interest in renewable energy sources has been growing steadily in recent years. Both state structures and representatives of big business invest billions in the development of "clean" systems. A happy future will be directly determined by renewable energy in Nigeria and throughout the world. From this article, you'll find out about advanced developments in the industry, which are very hopeful.

Renewable energy resources and technologies in Nigeria

Scientists have known about alternative energy for a long time. If they were given as much attention as they deserve, we would have already been using these modern developments. The potential for Nigeria is not fully understood. Some businessmen benefit from the preservation of the oil business and gas trade in the South. The state invests huge subsidies in these areas. There is no full clarity about the possibilities of the private sector. But it can’t be denied that useful work is being conducted and positive changes are noticeable.

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Renewable energy resources and technologies

Solar energy in Nigeria

What does humanity use for heating homes, for power supply and transport? Oil, nuclear reactors, fuel and hydroelectric. However, every day Earth receives a massive amount of sunlight - an almost inexhaustible energy that one only needs to take and use. Solar panels already exist but has not gained a significant popularity. Humanity has just started to think about the impact on ecology and nature, and perhaps we are entering an electric age completely dependent on the solar energy and the energy of a peaceful atom. No emissions, no greenhouse effect, no tons of debris.

There is a huge opportunity of producing solar energy in Nigeria. Each day, the distributed radiation is about 19.8 MJm2. There are 6 sunny hours per day. The estimated potential is 427,000 MW. Scientists claim that working on 5% of the suitable territory in the north and in the center of the country, it is possible to get 427,000MW.

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In summer of 2016 in Nigeria, under conditions of the PPA, confirmed by the NBET, 14 power projects are already being created.

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Solar energy

Hydro energy potential

Human life is impossible without water. The idea of using it for energy production is not new: a wavemill patent was already filed in 1799. At the end of the nineteenth century, the kinetic energy of the waves was transformed into electricity.

In Portugal, in 2008 the first wave power station was launched. Its power was low - only 2.25 MW - but the potential of wave energy was appreciated, and now similar projects are being created in a dozen countries.

According to scientists' calculations, in the future, wave energy will be more profitable than wind power (the specific power of waves is much bigger than the specific power of the wind), and the countries adjacent to the seas and oceans will be able to generate up to 5% more electricity from the waves.

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In Nigeria energy has been extracted from water for decades. 15% of the current directions of energy production are based on this. There are reasonable grounds to develop them:

  • There is a huge number of rivers and several natural waterfalls in our country.
  • Areas suitable for work are in all regions. There it is possible to set up small enterprises that produce 3.5 thousand MW.
  • River systems provide 70 micro dams, 126 mini dams. If this potential is developed, it will be possible to extract up to 112,500 MW.
  • At the moment, we use only 17% of this natural wealth. Many promising projects are moving slowly because of a lack of investment.
  • Only 64 MW are produced of the 3,500 potential MW of low-power electricity.
  • In 2020, the state authorities plan to reach 5.69 thousand MW. To do this, it is necessary to improve the old systems and establish new mechanisms.

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Hydro energy

Wind energy in Nigeria

Air is another resource that will never be exhausted. The wind is a pressure drop that occurs when the temperature of the air masses changes. Redirecting their movement is what we call wind. People have learned how to use its power for their economic needs. You might have heard of a few popular windmills. For centuries, they have been used to grind grain for flour. An even more ancient method is wind power in shipping. Earth was fully explored thanks to the sailing fleet. Of course, today there are more modern and high-tech methods.

There is an impressive potential in Nigeria. The average annual speed is 2 meters per second in the coastal regions and 4 at an altitude of 30 meters in the north. In the most suitable regions speed reaches 5 meters per second. The highest speed is observed in Sokoto, Kano and Gembu. Also worth considering are Lagos, Enugu and Maiduguri. Here, wind farms will work quite successfully. A potential territory is the west coast and Mambila Plateau. At the moment, in Katsina, 10 MW generators are being used.

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wind power

The only drawback of this ecological process is the noise of windmills. But this problem is easily solved by removing such buildings from residential areas.

The wind power industry is hindered by the erroneous opinion that technological development will cease in the absence of electricity. But, firstly, there will always be wind so it's reliable. Secondly, windmills are erected in places where the gradient of the pressure drop is very high, and there is no point in worrying about the inactivity of the equipment.

The advantages of wind power plants can be attributed to the speed of their commissioning. No type of energy producing station, except solar, can't be built in two weeks and start to provide usable current. The forecast for the development of wind energy is rather favourable.

Wind power can successfully develop in Nigeria. According to forecasts by scientists, by the end of the century, one-third of all needs of the country will be provided by wind power. The major part of these capacities will be directed at energy consumption by the population or utility enterprises.

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Wind energy

Green energy Nigeria

Biomass is considered a renewable source of energy because the energy contained in it is produced through the process of photosynthesis, when plants convert the radiant energy of the sun into hydrocarbons. Growing plants specifically for conversion into biomass is, in fact, a form of conservation of solar energy.

During combustion, hydrocarbons release heat, carbon dioxide (CO2, also called "greenhouse" gas) and water. Carbon dioxide returns to the environment and participates in the biochemical carbon cycle, promoting the growth of other plants and replenishing the burned biomass. Thus, burning of biomass with proper organization of the process does not lead to additional pollution of the environment with carbon dioxide. Water returns to the natural hydro cycle. Heat can be used to generate electricity, as well as to meet other energy needs of mankind.

Some types of biomass - a tree, for example - can simply be burned to get biomass energy. However, there are technologies that make it possible to obtain liquid and gaseous fuels from wood and other biological materials. They can be used together with (and possibly in the future instead of) gasoline, diesel fuel, methane, and propane.

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Green energy

In Nigeria, corn, sorghum, sugar cane could be used. Every day, we produce 227, 000 tons of waste, from which 6.8 million cubic meters of gas can be made. This situation is being studied but the results are hopeful. Scientists continue to learn new information about the production of biological gas. It is also necessary to acquire modern technology and solve political issues.

We hope that, in future, renewable energy sources and technologies will bring the economy of the country to brand new level and we will enjoy all the advantages of such energy.

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