Waterborne diseases and their causes you should know

See water borne diseases list with causes. Water plays a crucial role in human life. However, it is a carrier of many diseases that are dangerous for our health and life. Being aware means being armed!

Diseases caused by water

Water is one of the essential substances on earth. Huge numbers of people suffer from shortage of quality drinking water. The poor-quality drinking water can induce poisoning or development of dangerous infections caused by viruses, parasites or bacteria. What are water borne diseases?

Human diseases that are associated with water are divided into three types:

Causes of water borne diseases:

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List of water borne diseases

1. Infections caused by water

There are lots of water borne diseases. They include infections contracted by drinking contaminated water directly. The group of infections that can enter a human body with the water for bathing, hand washing or use for irrigation and technical purposes belongs to diseases caused by water.

2. Water poisoning

A large number of organic and inorganic compounds entering open waters and water intake zones can cause poisoning. Poisoning with mercury salts is the most dangerous. According to WHO, the permissible limits for the content of this substance in drinking water should not exceed 0.01 mg per liter. The use of drinking water with a high content of mercury for several months or years leads to chronic poisoning with its salts.

About 4.5 tons of mercury annually get into the atmosphere, soil, and water including drinking water. Penetrating water mercury ions form oxides or other compounds. They accumulate in a body, lead to poisoning and disruption of enzymes.

Cadmium is no less dangerous regarding poisoning, as the water can contain its toxic salts or oxides. They are also prone to accumulation in the human body and chronic poisoning. Cadmium poisoning is the most dangerous for those who live in industrial cities, where water sources are polluted with industrial waste.

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3. Waterborne viruses

The virus refers to a special form of life parasitic in living organisms. Viruses can be transmitted in various ways including by water. They can enter the human body when drinking untreated water or swimming in ponds with contaminated water.

The most common virus is adenovirus infection affecting the nasopharynx, eye’s mucous membranes, and the digestive tract. This virus also causes the development of bronchitis and pneumonia.

Hepatitis A can also be transmitted by water. It leads to weakness with fever. Besides, the virus damages the liver and causes pain in the abdomen, nausea, and jaundice.

The waterway transmission of such a dangerous disease as poliomyelitis is quite relevant too. Water polio outbreaks have been reported in many countries around the world. It should also be borne in mind that enteroviruses can spread through water, causing severe lesions of the intestines, central nervous system, skin and mucous membranes in humans.

In tropical countries including Nigeria, a dangerous virus causes the dengue and West Nile fevers. They have severe symptoms of intoxication, fever and skin rashes, lymph nodes, diarrhea, and vomiting. The mentioned above fevers can cause the development of coma and numerous lesions of internal organs.

4. Waterborne bacteria

Transmitted with water bacteria are no less dangerous. They can exist in the water for drinking and reservoirs for bath. The most dangerous bacteria are cholera vibrio. It causes severe and especially dangerous illness as well as E. coli which brings dysentery (shigellosis). E. coli bacteria cause severe diarrhea with dehydration and abdominal pain, nausea, and general malaise.

Salmonella bacterium is also dangerous. It can bring salmonellosis outbreaks. Such infection is especially dangerous for children and elderly and patients with chronic illness. Typhoid fevers bacteria belong to a special variety of salmonella. They are also transmitted by water. While the development of such disease, the digestive organs and lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity are affected. Prolonged diarrhea and fever, skin rashes also takes place here. The disease can lead to death without full value therapy.

5. Waterborne parasites

They include various types of worms - roundworm, pinworms, and some kinds of tapeworms. In African countries. These are schistosomes and rishtas. They penetrate the people’s skin in the water and intrude in the body affecting various internal organs. Schistosomiasis occurs when the parasite enters the body with the development of skin rashes, chills, muscle pain, fever, and damage to internal organs. Infection with rishta leads to the formation of dracunculiasis with allergic skin rashes on the body. Besides, it causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.

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Prevention tips

To avoid the waterborne diseases, it is worth remembering that water for drinking and cooking should be taken only from centralized sources of drinking supply. If there is none in your place of living, you should filter and boil water, disinfect it in any possible ways. Besides, it is necessary to desist from bathing in questionable reservoirs with stagnant water. Take care of yourself and your family!

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