How to plant rice: useful tips to know
Would you like to know more about rice processing? Rice is one of the oldest and most popular cereals on Earth. Today there are many types of rice and methods of its cultivation. Which one can you use in Nigeria? Is it difficult or quite easy? Can you do it in your own garden? We will answer all of these questions right now!
There are three main types of rice planting:
- Pouring (irrigated) rice
- Dry rice production
- Lime rice cultivation.
The difference between these types is in the moisture characteristics of the fields on which rice is grown. These fields are of three types:
- Pouring fields or checks on which rice is grown with constant water flooding until the crop is ripe, and before it is harvested the water is drained. This is the method 90% of the world's rice is grown.
- Upland fields where rice is grown without artificial irrigation in areas with high rainfall. The yield of such fields is lower than the pouring.
- Estuary fields where rice is grown in river bays or during floods. This method of rice cultivation is the oldest, but ineffective. It is used mainly in the countries of Southeast Asia.
How to plant rice in Nigeria
In the cultivation of rice some major factors taken into account, factors such as temperature and humidity of the soil. A large number of sunny days contribute to higher yields. For the cultivation of rice, silt and clay soils that retain water well are best. However, sandy soils, despite the low natural yield, can produce the highest yields if treated with fertilizers.
In mountainous areas, rice is grown on terraces that are created on the slopes of the mountains and are fenced with shafts to hold water. On flat lands, torrential rice fields are usually leveled to ensure even irrigation and good drainage, and they are divided into sections with shafts, and then water is supplied into them through a system of canals.
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Rice begins to grow from March to June, depending on the region. Rice fields are usually kept flooded with water, periodically changing the depth of flooding depending on the phase of plant development and to control pests and weeds. In many farms, pesticides are added to water to increase yields, but in some countries there is a tendency to abandon the use of chemicals. When rice ripens, water is drained from the fields, and the soil is dried to 18-22% humidity and only then harvested.
The best way to reduce crop losses is to use resistant varieties.
Rice is of different lengths: short, medium and long. It can easily grow in your garden or in a box with the necessary soil, water and nutrients. Short grain, medium grain and long grain rice grows in wet conditions well, in particular, where there are puddles of water or there is a moorland. After the rice grains grow, the water in which they are located should evaporate, and then you can harvest and clean the rice. After harvesting and cleaning, the rice will be ready to be sold.
How to plant rice at home
Make sure that there is clay with a slight acidity in the soil. You can grow rice in plastic containers using the same soil. Wherever you decide to plant seeds, you need a reliable water source and drainage system.
Choose a sunny place, as rice grows best in the open sun when it is warm (at a temperature of about 21 degrees Celsius).
Consider the time of year. Rice will grow 3-6 months. It takes a long time to grow rice.
Take 30-50 grams of seeds. Soak the seeds in water to prepare them for planting. Leave for 12 hours (but not more than 36 hours). Then remove the seeds from the water.
While the seeds are in the water, decide where and how you will plant them. Many people like to plant seeds in rows, so it is easier to water and process them. Dig the grooves and install something on the edges that would prevent the water from going to the ground. This does not mean that the water should always be in ditches, but the grooves must be wet.
How to plant rice in water
- Plant rice seeds in the fall or spring. Get rid of the weeds and level the soil, then plant the seeds.
- Remember that the ground should be wet all the time. It is much easier to fill several small pits with water than one large. If you plan to grow rice outside, it will be easier if rice grows on several beds.
- If you plant rice in the fall, in the spring you will need to get rid of weeds, so that the rice has all the nutrients it needs and enough space.
Pour at least 5 centimeters of water on the garden bed or in the box with the ground. This is a classic recommendation, but many people have noticed that it is enough just to moisten the soil all the time and not leave water standing. Decide for yourself. The main thing - do not forget to monitor the level of moisture.
Add compost or mulch, covering the seeds. Moisture is retained in organic compost.
Watch the water level in the beds and moisten the soil regularly. You can keep rice under water all the time, keeping it at the level of five centimeters. If you do not want to do this, just water the ground all the time so that it does not dry out. Seeds will begin to germinate in a week.
Spread the seeds so that each one has enough space. Place the seeds at a distance of no more than 10 centimeters from each other. The beds should be located at a distance of 25-30 centimeters. Within a month, seedlings reach 15-17 centimeters in height.
Sometimes the seeds are first germinated elsewhere, because then they still have to be transplanted. If you decide to do so, wait until the seedlings reach two centimeters in height. After that, they can be planted at a distance of 30 centimeters from each other in a moist soil.
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Wait for ripening. This will happen in 3-4 months. During this time, seedlings can reach up to 40 centimeters in height. Let the water evaporate or siphon off any excess water. In the next two weeks, the rice will turn from green into yellow, and this will mean that you can harvest.
When the seedlings grow to 35 centimeters in height, drain the ground, then pour water again and drain again. Then wait for the rice to dry and turn yellow.
Picking and cooking rice
Cut the stems and let them dry. When the rice turns yellow (2 weeks after draining the soil), it will be ready to harvest. Cut the stems right under the rice. The top of the stem will be covered with rice, which you will not confuse with anything.
Dry the stems during 2-3 weeks. Wrap them in a newspaper and put them in a dry and sunny place. Moisture should completely come out of rice.
Bake the rice in the oven for an hour at 80 degrees. Remove the rice stacks and warm it in the oven. The rice should not be burnt. Gradually the grains will darken and turn golden brown.
Separate the core from the shell. Let the rice cool. Then rub it with your hands and separate the rice from the shell. You will have rice that you can immediately cook and eat.
Rice farming can be difficult - very soon you may decide that it would be better to buy rice in a package. But if you have patience, you will succeed. Having finished the work, you will be glad that now you have a wonderful product that you have grown yourself.
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