There are more than two hundred countries in the world! They are all very different, but they still can coexist! How is it possible? International relations theory can give you a conceptual framework of this coexistence! What is international relations? Continue reading to find out!
What is international relationships?
The International relations is a field of political studies. Depending on the institution, it can be a discipline connected with one course or several courses in a university. International relations theory can be divided into several types depending on the basis of the analysis.
The first notion of the theory can be traced back to “The Twenty Years` Crisis” of E.H. Carr. This work was published in 1939. According to another version, the first notion of the theory can be traced to “Politics Among Nations” by Hans Morgenthau. This book was published in 1948.
Regardless of the stource, the development of international relations theory started after the First World War. It's connected to the Chair of International Relations conducted at the University of Wales. The early scholars of the theory concentrated on the establishment of a collective security system. It was intended to substitute the system of power balance. The first scholars of the international theory were called idealists.
Top 10 International relations theory types
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The first theory of international relations is called realism. This theory relies on the ancient traditions of such writers as Hobbes, Machiavelli, and Thucydides. The outbreak of the theory was after the Second World War. The theory consists of three main parameters:
- Statism – the belief that the nation states are the main actors in international relations;
- Survival – The belief that there is no central authority in the world and states will constantly struggle for power;
- Self-Help – One state can't guarantee another state survival.
In the definition of international relations theory – neorealism is an advanced realism. Neorealism representatives are Joseph Grieco and Kenneth Waltz. The structure of neorealism consists of two principles:
- Anarchy of the international system;
- Distribution capabilities of countries.
Liberalism international theory is also called idealism, utopianism or Wilsonianism. The key factor of this theory is tan equilibrium between internal and foreign policy of a state. Liberalism was raised after the World War II. Liberalists believe that dependence between states is connected not only with political or security measures but also with internal dependency. Therefore, absolute peace between nations can be achieved through absolute interdependence.
Neo-Liberalism as an international theory is an advanced version of Liberalism. The main idea of this theory is constructed over the counterarguments to Liberalism. For instance, Neo-Liberalists argue with Liberalists about successful coexistence between states on the terms of interdependency.
Post-Liberalism was born as a counterargument to Neo-Liberalism. It provides the idea of an ideal globalized world where states are forced to cooperate. The key part to the international relations is given to the international organizations. They serve as monitors between states.
The main idea of Constructivism was provided by Michael Barnet. According to him, international politics is driven by social values. Constructivism does not see anarchy as a standard of international relations. Constructivism promotes social norms as a basis for international relations.
7. Marxism and Neo-Marxism
These international relations theories are based on the total rejection of liberal views of cooperation. Marxism is mainly focused on the economic aspects of state cooperation. Marxists view the international system as a constant pursue of capital accumulation. The Neo-Marxism can be traced to Leninism, where capital driven Imperialists explore “Third World” countries` resources.
The feminine approach to the international theory can be traced back to the early 1990s. Feminism claims that international relations are based on the gender approach. According to this theory, the key basis of any country is its reproduction.
Functionalists in their theories are focused on the common interests of states. Therefore, they see integration of the states as an inevitable future of international relations. Functionalists also introduced the “Invisible hand” of international relations. Therefore, they introduce the “system” as the main actor of international relations rather than nations or states.
10. English School – Realism
This system develops the idea of anarchy between states but this idea is implemented in the “society of states”. Many Realists continue to develop the ideas of utopianism and idealism.
From the above-mentioned theories, it`s possible to conclude that the matter of international relations is quite complex. Therefore, there is no final thought on the international relation process. However, these theories can provide different approaches that can help to analyze and predict the behavior of the relationships between countries. Eventually, it could lead to the understanding of relations between nations and development of these relations.
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