What is the full meaning of GSM?
What is the full meaning of GSM? What do we know about the Global System for Mobile Communication? Let`s take a look at the investigation related to the technology that has changed the face of our world! Continue reading to find out more!
GSM full meaning
Global System for Mobile Communications or Groupe Special Mobile (GSM) is a technology standard created and developed in Europe. The creator of the group was the European Telecommunications Standards Institute or ETSI. The original second-generation protocol was introduced to the public in 1991. The first country which enjoyed the system was Finland.
Today, GSM covers more than 90% market areas in 219 countries. GSM was first introduced to the public as a mere replacement of the first generation of mobile network. GSM was created as the digital circuit-switched network. This technology enabled the complete optimization of voice telephone. GSM introduced the advantages of General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) and Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
Eventually, GSM will be replaced all over the world by the more advanced mobile network standards like 3G and 4G. For today, GSM trademark is registered by the GSM Association. It`s one of the most used network standards in the world!
GSM Network structure
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The network structure for this standard was the revolution in mobile technologies. Therefore, it had no real contestants on the global market. The system was divided into a number of sections:
- OSS – the full meaning of OSS is Operations Support System. The system is responsible for network maintenance;
- GPRS Core Network – it`s a part of the GSM that makes it possible to connect to the Internet;
- Switching Subsystem – it`s responsible for mobile management and call switching;
- BSS – the full meaning of BSS is the Base Station Subsystem. The signal is responsible for handling the traffic between the switching subsystem and a mobile phone.
GSM Technology – Base Station Subsystem
The core element for GSM is BSS. GSM is a cellular network system. What does it mean? It means that it searches and connects to the cells. There are five different cells that can be utilized for use by GSM:
- Umbrella Cells – used to cover shadowed or secret cells in the mobile network. They are used to cover small gaps between other cells;
- Femto Cells – these cells are used in small business environments or residencies;
- Pico Cells – they are relatively small. The coverage diameter is just few dozen meters. Still, it`s more than enough for home coverage;
- Micro Cells – where the antenna height is at the level of an average rooftop;
- Macro Cells – where the base station antenna can be placed on roofs of buildings.
Each cell is responsible for a certain area of mobile coverage. The horizontal radius of the cell is limited by the length of an antenna. It can cover the area from few hundred meters to kilometers. The longest distance to cover GSM by one particular antenna is 35 kilometers.
There are also implementations of concepts of double cells in GSM, where the cell area can be doubled. However, there are a lot of variables that should be implemented for the work of double cells in GSM.
What is the meaning of GSM mobile phone coverage?
It`s a simple coverage of mobile reception area. In this area, you can reach a mobile signal and send/receive mobile signals. GSM enhanced the coverage system of mobile signals. However, this still depends on a variety of factors that can ruin the coverage area of the signal. There are areas where you can`t receive any mobile signal. These areas are called “dead zones.”
What is GSM? It`s a standard of mobile network that works in certain frequencies. Majority of the GSM system networks operate in the frequencies between 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. Some countries prefer to broaden and adapt the frequencies. For instance, Canada and USA, where GSM operates in the frequencies between 850 MHz and 1900 MHz. Other countries have only the option to use the first generation frequencies of the 400-450 MHz.
GSM Voice Codecs
What is the meaning of GSM phone voice codecs? These codecs are used to squeeze your voice and immediately transfer it to various distances. GSM usually squeezes 3.1 kHz audio into the 6.5-13 kbit/s. There are two audio codecs used to achieve these results. The first codec is the Half Rate Codec which provides 6.5 kbit/s. The second codec is the Full Rate Codec which provides 13 kbit/s. GSM was also improved with the Enhanced Full Rate Codec which provides 12.2 kbit/s.
GSM and SIM
The most important feature introduced by GSM was the Subscriber Identity Module. You know it today as just SIM card or Smart Card. It provides a whole range of information about a user. It also gives you a different way of storing your phone book. In addition, it restricts a user to one particular mobile operator which provides a whole range of services.
The meaning of GSM mobile is security. It was the first mobile system that considered user identification, challenge-response, and over-the-air encryption.
GSM is a revolutionized technology that changed the world. It helped to provide better internet and service connections for mobile devices. A lot of technology innovations today would be impossible without introducing GSM in the 1990s.
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